Types of Surgeries in Orthopaedics

Orthopaedics is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, correction, prevention, and treatment of skeletal deformities which include disorders of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, nerves and skin. These entities make up the musculoskeletal system of the Human Body.
The Musculoskeletal System allows you to move, work and be active.


The physicians who specialize in the treatment of the Musculoskeletal system are called orthopaedic surgeons or orthopaedists.
Orthopaedists use medical, physical and rehabilitative or surgical methods and are involved in all aspects of health care pertaining to the musculoskeletal system Orthopaedists treat multiple diseases and conditions, that include fractures and dislocations, torn ligaments, sprains and strains tendon injuries, pulled muscles and ruptured disks, sciatica, lower back pain, bunions and hammer toes, arthritis, osteoporosis, bone tumours, muscular dystrophy and growth anomalies.

In general, orthopaedic surgeons are skilled in: 
  • Diagnosis of disorder/ injury.
  • Treatment with medication, exercise, surgery or other treatment plans.
  • Rehabilitation by exercises/ physical therapy to restore movement, strength, and function.
  • Treatment plans to prevent injury or slow the progression of diseases.
Typically, as much as 50 percent of an orthopaedist’s practice is devoted to the non-surgical or medical management of injuries or diseases and 50 percent to surgical management. Surgery may be needed to restore function that has been lost as a result of injury or disease of bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves or skin.
Orthopaedists also work closely with other healthcare professionals such as physiotherapists and often serve as consultants to other physicians. Orthopaedists are members of the teams that manage complex, multi-system trauma, and often play an important role in the organization and delivery of emergency care.

Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System include:

  • Arthritis
  • Bursitis
  • Elbow Pain and Problems
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Foot Pain and Foot Problems
  • Hand Pain and Hand Problems
  • Fractures
  • Lower Back Pain
  • Knee Pain Problems
  • Kyphosis
  • Neck Pain and Neck Problems
  • Osteoporosis
  • Paget’s disease of the Bone
  • Scoliosis
  • Shoulder Pain and Problems
  • Soft Tissue Injuries

This blog will help you understand the types of surgeries that are performed by an Orthopaedic Surgeon in simple terms.
What Types of Surgeries do Orthopaedic Surgeons Perform?
Orthopaedic surgeons perform numerous types of surgeries on patients. Common surgeries include:

  • Arthroscopy – a procedure using special cameras and equipment to visualize, diagnose and treat problems inside a joint.
  • Fusion – a "welding" process by which bones are fused together with bone grafts and internal devices – such as metal rods – to heal into a single solid bone.
  • Internal Fixation – a method to hold the broken pieces of bone in proper position with metal plates, pins or screws while the bone is healing.
  • Joint replacement (partial, total and revision) – when an arthritic or damaged joint is removed and replaced with an artificial joint called a prosthesis.
  • Osteotomy – the correction of bone deformity by cutting and repositioning the bone.
  • Soft Tissue Repair – the mending of soft tissue, such as torn tendons or ligaments.
What Should a Patient Expect in the First Visit from an Orthopaedic Surgeon?
In general, visits with an orthopaedic surgeon start with a personal interview, physical examination and review of previous records or tests. This may be followed by additional diagnostic exams, such as blood tests, X-rays or other images. For most orthopaedic conditions and injuries there may be more than one form of treatment. The orthopaedic surgeon will discuss treatment options with the patient to mutually determine the plan best suited for his/her health and lifestyle.


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